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Thermopyles is a strait between the south-eastern slopes of Mount Kallidromon and Maliakos Gulf. The area was named after the springs that were in it.

The area of Thermopyles was a diachronically place of strategic and military conflicts, as in ancient times was the only land passage of communication between the north and south Greece. The archaeological site of Thermopyles is one of the most important historical sites, because of the battle in 480 BC, where the few Greek forces, consisting of 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians, led by Spartan King Leonidas, faced the numerous Persian forces, led by King Xerxes the first.

The choice of Thermopyles as an appropriate place to address the huge Persian army was dictated by the fort's position. The Persians could not develop here all their forces and propel them. But after the betrayal of Ephialtes the Greek, the Persians launched in the rear of the Greeks from the appropriate passage, that was suggested by Ephialtes. As a result all the Spartans of Leonidas, along with 700 Thespians, died on the battlefield defending the Pass of Thermopyles. The Greeks lost this battle on land, but they delayed the Persian forces and achieved the final victory against the Persians at the Naval Battle of Salamis. Basic information source is the historian Herodotus, who describes the famous battle.

In 1950 a monument was erected across the historic hill of Kolonos,  depicting the armored Leonidas. The monument was erected in the meomry of the Battle of Thermopyles, at the main gate of the pass, where the final phase of the battle took place.



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